Wheel Separation Accidents - Metallurgy Expert, Mark Bailey, PE
If I'm understanding things correctly, here is my synopsis of what these and other articles have said.
Although very informative, I am still not totally sure of my answer yet in regard to wobble nuts/wobble bolts, but feel that I have a better idea now. It seems that the main determining factor for the dangerous situation that people seem to talk about but never specify, is a lack of clamping force to sandwich the rim to the (spacer)/brake and the hub that the wheel studs are attached to. Based on these articles, it's more clear to me how the friction from the sandwiched wheel/(spacer)/brake/hub components are what take the force of accelerating, braking, etc. rather than the lug bolts or lug nuts. This makes sense as the threads on the lug bolts or studs after hard driving would be marred and mangled, but after hard driving they remain in good shape. The lug bolts/nuts only job is to create enough clamping force in a horizontal direction (or the same direction they are screwed in) with the proper factory specified torque they were engineered to work at, in order to clamp the wheel/(spacer)/brake/hub together. I would also assume that they take some of the force when turning as well, but it seems this is less of the issue compared to just coming loose going in a straight line due to improper torquing or failed/compromised lug nuts/bolts/studs.
Based on the articles, it seems the most common times that wheel separation from a car happens due to:
Improper torquing of lug nuts or lug bolts
-Over tightening stretches/stresses the bolts or studs which can cause failure
-Under tightening means there isn't enough friction between the wheel/brake/hub or spacer if also used causing the weight of the car to sit more on the lug bolts or studs causing failure
Running aftermarket lug centric wheels or not using properly sized centering rings on a car designed to be hub centric
causing the weight of the car to deform the rim stud/bolt holes which leads to loosening and failure
-MisterJJ, this seems to be more of what you are talking about, but not actually how things work
Surface changes between the wheel/(spacer)/brake/stud
due to paint/coating deterioration, corrosion, or otherwise causing a loosening of lug nuts/bolts
These things reiterate the importance of running aftermarket parts that are designed to work in the same way your factory parts were designed to work if you desire to use aftermarket parts. Using hub centric wheels and spacers, and proper centering rings on our cars seems to be very important (of course). Also, ensuring a clean smooth surface between wheel/(spacer)/brake/hub, as well as properly torquing lug nuts/bolts and using high quality components should mean safe operation. Properly torquing wheels and then re-torquing wheels to their proper torque value after installation between 15 and 500 miles should mean that proper clamping force will be achieved and a wheel separation would be very unlikely at that point.